Introduction

The term drone is taken directly from the world of science fiction, and drones are used in cinematography, military surveillance and recreational activities. The technology falls under the standard category between aeronautics, robotics, and mechatronics. This technology can range from fully self-driving military drone aircraft to remote-controlled aircraft and children’s amusement.

Drone aircraft are also called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) drones and are used mainly in cases where weather conditions are dry, cloudy or dangerous for human pilots.

However, the term drone may be deceptive, as there are many aircraft types. Let us look at the part of the drone.

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Drone Parts

The drone technology we will be taking is the average consumer-friendly drone that anyone with additional money may use.

1- Frame

Or chassis, the first and most important part of the plane. Typically made of plastic or carbon fibre, the tyres are designed by the model of the aircraft’s arms (triple, quad, hexagonal or eight), and the end of each component carries an engine and propeller.

In contrast, the aircraft’s centre brings flight controls, the camera’s electronic installation arm (to make the camera independent of the plane’s movement), and the rest of the equipment. As a result, the weight is most concentrated in the aircraft’s centre.

To maintain the advantage of the central balance point, the importance is critical for all drone parts. The heavier the frame. The lower the height achieved by the aircraft, the structure does not have to be too light to make the plane strong, so we use carbon fibre that combines durability and lightness.

2- Motors Engines of Drone

It is the next part in importance. There is a separate engine for each arm, and engine functions depend on the required energy and the process required of the machine; if a multi-engine aircraft is built to withstand heavy load and achieve the best flying time, then the larger torque engine with less rotation will be a perfect idea.

Still, other purposes may require a fast and robust system with manoeuvrability and a fast-moving engine. Measuring engine rotation speed (RPMs RPMs) is associated with kV. The quickest aircraft speed is 1,400 kV. While slower drones range with a longer battery life of 300-900 kV, these numbers are only valid if the battery fits with the drone fans.

Fans are drone wings made of plastic or carbon fibre. Carbon fibre is the best option, but it is more expensive. When choosing fans. Make sure the frame fits the size of the fans you’ve chosen. Most boundaries are indicated to be the maximum size of the fans they can contain. If you want a more robust structure, choose smaller fans and vice versa for higher load and longer flights.

These details have directed to a lot of problems. For example, if you want a 10,000ah six-speed battery, make sure your engines and electronic speed controller are also model 6s so that the flight control system can support it.

4- Electronic Speed Controller ESCs

It is the essential part of the control and is responsible for the operation of the engines. The speed controller determines the value of the current that reaches firmly into the engine system. Because the motors rotate at different speeds, they need a controller to determine these speeds.

The sender and receiver create a connection between the drone and the person in control; the sender connects to the aircraft’s controller and delivers inputs to it. Then takes orders out of the engines, the choice of transmitters is critical. And the sender’s choice depends on the number of channels needed to operate.

Flight Mechanism

after we learn about the essential parts of the multi-propelled drone, we can discuss how these parts can collectively fly. Let’s use the quadcopter as an example. The aircraft uses four propellers, powered by four engines, each mounted on a separate arm, and each torque-generating fan rotates.

Newton iii’s law states that each reaction has an equal reaction in intensity and reflects it in the direction, so the fan rotation will require the course of the arm that carries it in the opposite direction. Which is called a torque reaction, which is why the tail fan is in the helicopters. To compensate for the torque of the fuselage.

However, in a four-propeller aircraft, there is no need for a tail fan, as the torque of each fan can resist with equal torque and counter from the corresponding propeller. Eliminating each fan’s torque adjacent to it, which achieves efficiency in the flight of the four-propeller aircraft. Still, in the helicopter case, the flight generates more torque, which requires developing the tail fan for greater power. Making it difficult for the pilot to fly smoothly.

This problem does not exist in multi-propelled drones because power increases are always equal and opposite in the fan system. But the aircraft require to fly and move forward, achieved by applying less power to front fans and more management to rear fans. And this principle applies to all rotational directions.

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